Chandrayaan-2 lander Vikram will land on the south pole of the moon between 1.30 am and 2.30 pm Friday-Saturday. Rover Pragyan from Vikram will come out between 5.30 to 6.30 in the morning. In the last hours of the mission, the ISRO Chief K Sivan said that so far everything is going according to plan. ISRO scientists said that this is such a mission as to keep a child in a cradle.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi himself will be present at ISRO headquarters to witness this historic moment. He will also be accompanied by 60 children who won the science quiz last month. The Prime Minister has appealed to the people to share pictures of this moment on social media. The mission will be webcast on ISRO’s website at 1.10 pm. Apart from this, it will be live streaming on Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube.
Pragyan will do many experiments on a lunar day
Pragyan will do many experiments on the lunar surface in one lunar day (one day of the moon). One day of the moon is equal to 14 days on Earth. The orbiter, orbiting the moon, will continue to work on the mission for one year. If the lander Vikram lands on such a surface of the moon, where there is a slope of more than 12 degrees, then there will be a risk of it reversing.
‘Speed of lander will be low and reach the right place and make soft landing’
According to former ISRO chief G Madhavan Nair – Vikram onboard cameras will determine the exact location. When the place matches, the speed of the 5 rocket engines installed in it will be reduced from 6 thousand km per hour. The lander will float in the air for some time at the appointed place and take off slowly. Altitude sensors will also help for the landing of the lander. Nair also mentioned that laser ranging systems, onboard computers and many software, have been installed in the lander for making soft landings. He said that this is a very complex operation. I do not think any country has taken landing on the moon of a vehicle through onboard computers by taking real-time pictures.
How long will it take to remove the rover from the lander?
The rover (wisdom) will remain inside the lander. It will exit the lander at a speed of 1 centimeter/second. It will take 4 hours to leave. After coming out it will run 500 meters on the lunar surface. It will work on the Moon for 1 day (14 days of Earth). There are 2 payloads going with it. Their purpose will be to find out the presence of elements near the landing site and the fundamental structure of the rocks and soil of the moon. The rover will collect this data through the payload and send it to the lander, after which the lander will pass this data to ISRO.
What work will the orbiter, lander and rover do?
The orbiter will work for one year after reaching the moon’s orbit. Its main purpose is to communicate between the earth and the lander. In addition, the orbiter will prepare a map of the lunar surface, so that the existence and development of the moon can be ascertained. The lender will check whether earthquakes occur on the moon. Whereas, the rover will detect the presence of mineral elements on the lunar surface.
Moon dust protection is important
According to scientists – Moon dust is also a concern, it can cover the lander and disrupt its functioning. For this, four launchers will stop automatically during landing, only one will remain on. This will reduce the risk of dust blowing and covering its lander.
‘Soft landing on moon so far 38 attempts, 52% successful’
The first attempt to touch the moon was made in 1958 by Russia and the US and Soviet Union. Between August and December 1968, both countries sent 4 Pioneer Orbiters (US) and 3 Luna Impact (Soviet Union), but all were unsuccessful. So far, only 6 countries or agencies on the moon have sent satellite vehicles. Only 5 got success. So far 38 such attempts have been made, of which 52% were successful. However, ISRO is confident of the success of Chandrayaan-2. Madhavan Nair also says that we are going to witness the historical moment. 100% success.
How big is the success of Chandrayaan-2?
After America, Russia and China, India will become the fourth country in the world to reach the lunar surface. Chandrayaan-2 is the first such vehicle in the world, which will land on the south pole of the moon. Earlier, China’s Chang’e-4 vehicle made a landing at some distance from the South Pole. Till now the field remains unknown to scientists. Chandrayaan-2 will attempt to find minerals such as magnesium, calcium and iron at the south pole of the moon. It will also collect data on the atmosphere of the moon and its history.
The most important mission of Chandrayaan-2 would be to search for water or its signs there. If Chandrayaan-2 is able to find evidence of water here, it will be a big step for space science. If water and oxygen are provided, then base camps will be built on the moon, where research related to the moon as well as other missions related to space can be prepared. Space agencies will be able to use the moon as a launch pad to reach Mars. Apart from this, all the minerals here will be used in future missions.
The US space agency NASA is also preparing to go to the South Pole. In 2024, NASA will land astronauts on this part of the moon. Experts believe that a large part of NASA’s plan rests on the success of Chandrayaan-2.
South Pole: A place where there are large craters and the rays of the sun do not reach.
If an astronaut stands on the south pole of the moon, he will see the sun on the horizon line. He will be seen by the surface of the moon and shining. The sun’s rays slant at the south pole. Due to this, the temperature here is low. Space India training in-charge Tarun Sharma says that the temperature of the part of the moon which is exposed to the sun reaches above 130 degrees Celsius. Similarly, the temperature on the part of the moon where there is no sunlight drops below 130 degrees Celsius. So, every day (14 days of the Earth) temperature on the moon keeps rising, but the temperature at the south pole does not change much. This is the reason that there is a high probability of getting water there.
When was Chandrayaan-2 launched?
Chandrayaan-2 was launched with India’s most powerful GSLV Mark-III rocket. The rocket had three-module orbiters, Lander (Vikram) and Rover (Pragyan). Chandrayaan-2 weighed 3,877 kg. This was almost three times more than the Chandrayaan-1 mission (1380 kg). The mission launched on 22 July once technical glitches. There is a long calculation to choose the launching time. The movement of the Earth and the Moon is taken into consideration. In the case of Chandrayaan-2, the time taken from orbiting the Earth and the Moon to the landing was calculated. The orbiter orbited the Earth for 23 days. After that it took 6 days to reach the lunar orbit.
How big is the success of Chandrayaan-2?
After America, Russia, and China, India will become the fourth country in the world to reach the lunar surface. Chandrayaan-2 is the first such vehicle in the world, which will land on the south pole of the moon. Earlier, China’s Chang’e-4 vehicle made a landing at some distance from the South Pole. Till now the field remains unknown to scientists. Chandrayaan-2 will attempt to find minerals such as magnesium, calcium, and iron at the south pole of the moon. It will also collect data on the atmosphere of the moon and its history.
The most important mission of Chandrayaan-2 would be to search for water or its signs there. If Chandrayaan-2 is able to find evidence of water here, it will be a big step for space science. If water and oxygen are provided, then base camps will be built on the moon, where research related to the moon as well as other missions related to space can be prepared. Space agencies will be able to use the moon as a launchpad to reach Mars. Apart from this, all the minerals here will be used in future missions.
Our mission is cheaper than in many countries
|Barsheet (Isreal)||₹1400 Cr.|
|Chang’e-4 (C)||₹1200 Cr.|